for solutions to their problems have often been developed and adopted by the federal target programs. However, none of them did not give significant results. The population of small towns looking for ways to survive independently. But, maybe, in small towns and the fate of this - survive? This we will talk with the President of the Federation Council of Russia Sergei Mironov.
- The Federation Council has acted as a protector of small towns. Analysts explained that the Kremlin's desire to strengthen the vertical of power. What is your position?
- Understand that the bigger the city, the greater its effect on the life of the country. This is not quite true. Russia - a large country towns. There are about two-thirds of the total number of cities in the country. In their area of influence of living up to 40 million people.
Ancient Rus called gardarikoy, country towns. Cities were once the guard towers of Russia.
Today the small town played the role of capital in rural areas and even entire regions. They are - a center of life, В«control pointsВ» of their territories, the location of industry, transport and distribution sites, research centers, and often the only pockets of culture and education.
Most of the small towns of Russia is the historical foundation of Russian statehood and national culture and national traditions. So the revival of small towns - it is also our duty to the Fatherland, the responsibility for his fate.
- In the new economic and social conditions of small towns were virtually helpless. Nearly 60 percent of the population - more than anywhere else in the country - below the poverty line. According to experts, 10 percent of small towns are on the verge of death, and expressed the view that they need to die with dignity. Do you really give?
- The problems of small towns really glaring. These have affected the fate of all major economic and social contradictions of 90-ies. Between 1996 and 2001, it closed 70% of production. Many small towns have become hostage to one or two companies. The bankruptcy of even a single enterprise could jeopardize the life of an entire city.
Some towns still managed to survive and even increasing production. Many were saved active intervention in the economy of the local authorities.
There are examples of successful municipal marketing to attract strategic investors in the city's economy. For example, the city administration Kirzhach literally pulled out of the crisis, one of the largest textile companies in Russia В«KirzhachshelkВ», finding an effective owner.
strategic goal of economic development in small towns - to overcome the dependence on core businesses, support the development of new, efficient manufacturing, services, tourism. Conditions must be created for the organization in the small towns of innovation centers that serve the technology needs of small and medium-sized businesses in the city and in rural areas.
It is important to develop something that creates an innovative point of growth. These roads paved, mobile forms of communication, a network of small aviation airports.
Here local forces can not do. Need help the federal government.
But the small towns of Russia - is not only a wealth of problems. Every small town of its unique way of life, its appearance, its silhouette, original thought and memory. The small towns of Russia is unique. Their historic silhouette, monuments, local color make up has not yet understood the Russian economy is a powerful resource for development. Energy from the field to come to the aid of government economic policies to revitalize small towns. And many more.
- Local authorities usually refer to financial difficulties.
- indeed, only 15% of small municipalities now have budgets that can fund some development. The state utilities is now a critical factor in the development of most small cities. Cities are experiencing shortages of housing, housing vetshaet stored barracks, etc.
totally unacceptable situation where in the dozens of small towns do not have running water, sewage, gas supply networks. In the past, many social functions - the contents of some of the housing, kindergartens and schools - taking companies and organizations that were productive and economic potential of the city. Now utilities spent the lion's share of municipal budgets.
question about the development of the infrastructure of the city did not even put. Main prevent any man-made disaster.
serious social problem of small towns - the percentage of residents of retirement age, women are much higher than in large and medium. Migration, the influx of people from villages practically does not change the situation.
concerns of small towns is only possible through the establishment of an efficient, stable operation of enterprises. This must be and will become public policy. It is very important and the role of local authorities. Only they can prioritize. In addition, as one of the major creditors of bankrupt (because of debts to the local budget), they have an impact on the rest of the creditors and can dictate to them in the salvation of the city economy.
- The most important component of the economies of small towns should be a tourism and recreation. This is much talk but little has been done.
- No investors. The civilized tourism has high standards. It requires serious investment, which did not immediately give the value. To have investors, the city must pre-exercise significant investments in its infrastructure. Nobody will invest money in the hotel, if not cleaned up in the system of communications. Nobody will build camping, if there is environmental risk. One Western investor, who wishes to invest in ohothozyaystvo, called on local authorities to build the airport.
I am talking about the limitations.
But there is a prospect. Already, tourism and recreation has become a source of replenishment of the budget for the dozens of small towns.
This has been helped, and the rich cultural resources of the region, and local color, creativity and entrepreneurial spirit of the people. Cities have begun to explore its history, recreating the old traditions, holidays, and offer entirely new. By the unique historical architectural monuments through the creativity of the urban residents added the original art museums (Torzhok, Myshkin, Uglich, and many others). The ideas they gained in popular culture, urban legends. As tourism is now making a bet on individual objects shown. That helps small towns already receive tourist status and bring the money for the reconstruction of monuments of history, culture, architecture, construction of infrastructure facilities.
- There is a special В«patriotismВ» residents of small towns. It is very sensitive related to historical heritage ...
- The population of small towns are not so indifferent towards the place where the lives, both in major metropolitan areas. People are genuinely proud of his В«low homelandВ». In small towns such as particularly feel that is true patriotism. I am convinced that, at a forum recently visited Russia regional specialists in one of the oldest of our towns Zaraisky.
I would say more. In small towns to a model of civil society. In developed countries, the foundation of society and the state is the local government. Local authorities are as close as possible to the people, every citizen can participate in local government, to defend their interests. It is emerging partnership between the government and society.